Fibrosis is the replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue. Scar tissue formation is part of the normal healing process after a surgery. While scar tissue can be a cause of pain, scar tissue itself is rarely painful since it contains no nerve endings.

The formation of scar tissue after a joint injury or surgery can affect the joint’s range of motion, and potentially lead to pain and/or other joint problems. Scar tissue that forms near a nerve root (called epidural fibrosis) can also lead to pain.

People can often discourage the development of permanent scar tissue by participating in physical therapy and doing range-of-motion stretches and exercises.